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Reading Research Articles

Information about research articles

A research study article will usually contain the following sections in the following sequence.

Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and References.

Sometimes these section names may change slightly, for instance Methods might be Methodology or possibly Research Methods. Results is sometimes called Findings. Discussion may also include conclusions and recommendation or even further research.
Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Rating Form
Task One Defining each section. Match the definition with the name of the section.

Instructions: Match the items in the boxes on the left with the items on the right:
  1. Click in the table cell containing the item you want to move.
  2. Click in the table cell where you want the item to go. The words will swap position.
  3. If an item is in the right position, it will have a green background and a tick.
  4. When all the table cells are green and have ticks, you have finished.

       Score: /


Task Two Re-order these steps into the correct sequence for reading a research study article
When you are ready to begin reading the research study article. It is not necessary to read from page one to the end but to first of catch the overall significance of the report. Re-order the steps below into a proper sequence of success of reading research articles.

Task Three - Reading an ABSTRACT of a Research paper. What can be expected? An abstract typically is both a preview and summary of the report you are beginning to read. The abstract will usually mention the purpose of the paper the procedures used in the paper and the major findings or results of the paper. Read the following research paper abstract and add the appropriate sub heading that tells what the which part of the abstract those sentences discuss. Major findings, purpose of paper and procedures used.

(Part 1)
The Non-native English (NNE) teachers who teach English as a Foreign Language face unique societal and job-related challenges. NNE teachers have been a significant part of China’s development and educational reform since 1978. The perceptions and beliefs of six Shanghai-based English teachers with varying degrees of teaching experience, while performing their language teaching duties at the secondary school level are discussed herein. While teaching and use of English have been government goals since 1978, observing teaching patterns and the underlying theories at work, have only recently begun to be elaborated upon. (Part 2) This ethnographic study, using Grounded Theory analysis, through in-depth interviews and classroom observations; elaborates how English language teaching within China’s educational system and the changes over time affect teacher perspectives. Data collected from in-depth, unstructured interviews were analyzed and categorized using Classic Grounded Theory. Continuous, comparative analysis of interview data was carried out, resulting in an understanding of language teaching roles and routines. Classroom observations with accompanying discussion afterwards are described and provide a greater insight into the perspectives of language teachers. Comparison of the perspectives of three generations of teachers gave further insight into how social and educational lives are changing over time. (Part 3) Underlying theories uncovered from data analysis are put forth, including: The theory of the dominance of the high-stakes university entrance examination held at the end of secondary school and the teachers’ personal teaching preferences, called ‘inner curriculum’ are discussed as emerging patterns in the thought processes of these teachers. Other emerging theories uncovered in this study included teachers’ consistent interest in and knowledge of their students’ learning processes and progress, and how language teachers responded to ongoing elements of change. This study provides analysis of the inner workings within Shanghai’s English teaching classrooms through the eyes of these teachers.
Task Four - Read the incomplete abstract below and determine what else should have been included. Which parts from the six listed below the Abstract should be included?


Teaching English Reading in China has taken on a whole new dimension since the Ministry of Education lowered the age as to when students should begin learning English. In this paper I compare an Australian phonics program, currently being used by over 250 schools, with whole word curriculum. This paper also includes a study of the relationship between L1 reading (Chinese) with L2 reading (English) reading rates. In addition, socioeconomic factors and how they may affect reading scores are compared to see if there is any correlation. Finally the LEM (Light Education Ministries) phonics program is itself evaluated through student testing, interviews, classroom observations, and a student questionnaire. As China moves forward with this policy of teaching massive numbers of younger students English, the phonics/whole word controversy again, comes to the surface. This time it has some new participants.
  1. Possible parts that should be included but are missing:
    1. Purpose
    2. Procedures
    3. Background
    4. Major Findings
    5. Context
    6. Specific Location
    (Correct answers are bolded.)
Task Five
  1. Any other part of the abstract seem incorrect or out of place? A,B or both?
    1. Mention of (LEM) a private company in a research report
    2. Use of pronoun “I”--- avoid in formal academic articles
    3. Both
    (Correct answers are bolded.)
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